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This rule is in place to ensure that the basketball is pressured as quickly as possible x4 in the diagram.
This player might be a guard after a layup or a big after your team makes an outside shot. But if your players find themselves deciding who should guard the inbounds pass out of a guard and a post player, we would prefer the post player.
As the opposition is in-bounding the basketball, your team must have one defender pressuring the in-bounds pass, and the other four defenders should be matched up in man-to-man.
The most important rule to remember on an inbounds pass is that we want the opposition to catch the basketball below the free-throw line.
Preferably as close to the baseline as possible. To do this, the front defenders x1 and x2 play behind their opponents and allow them to cut to the basketball and make the catch.
The players that are defending at half-court should be standing on the side of their opponent so that they can pick off any passes that are made over the top of the front line.
We never allow the lob pass. Once the basketball is inbounded, the player who was defending the inbounds pass must immediately get behind the line of the basketball.
The run and jump defense can only be effective when the help defenders are in the forward path of the player with the basketball. This allows us to be in the correct positions to jump-switch or to trap.
We simply pick the basketball up while everyone falls back into help positions again. Once the offense has inbounded the basketball and the defenders are all in the correct positions, the next step is to put a high amount of pressure on the player with the basketball.
We do this to achieve two things: 1. To not allow the point guard to survey the floor and make a forward pass. To encourage the point guard to dribble the basketball.
This is why all defenders near half-court should be playing side-by-side on their opposition player. They do this by positioning themselves on the dribblers inside hip and by applying a high amount of pressure.
This concern is understandable because coaches have been drilling into them for years to never allow an offensive player to beat them off the dribble.
The 1 goal is to get the dribbler into an uncontrolled dribble down the sideline leading straight into the main sideline trap! Providing that your team has done a good job of cutting off forward passing lanes and forcing the point guard to dribble, there are three possible scenarios that can occur:.
The point guard reverses the basketball to another player. The point guard dribbles down the sideline. The point guard dribbles towards the middle of the court.
If the point guard dribbles down the sideline, the players set a trap. As spoke about previously, no player should be behind the line of the basketball.
As spoke about previously, this begins with the on-ball defender positioning their body so that the point guard is encouraged to dribble down the sideline.
While we allow the offensive player the first step, the on-ball defender must never allow themselves to get completely beat on the play. This will always lead to a foul.
The best player to trap the basketball on the sideline with is the first help defender. This is usually the player who puts pressure on the inbounds pass.
When the point guard starts to dribble down the sideline, this help defender must immediately chase and catch up from behind to set the trap. This trap can occur anywhere along the sideline but preferably happens just over half-court.
Trapping Tip — Do not reach in and try to steal the basketball. Players that do this will foul. Instead, make the guard throw a lob pass that can be intercepted or attempt to get a deflection on the pass.
The other three players must rotate and put themselves in the best position to steal a pass. Once the trap has been set by the on-ball defender and the first help defender, the other three players must position themselves in spots that will give them the best opportunity to intercept or deflect a pass.
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VAT included in all prices where applicable. View mobile website. As part of a nascent genre, its development was not strongly influenced by existing conventions, nor was it said to be a major influence on games immediately after it.
Jump Bug offered a glimpse of what was to come, with uneven, independently suspended platforms and levels that scroll both horizontally and vertically.
The Apple II game Track Attack includes a scrolling platform level where the character runs and leaps along top of a moving train.
Only a few home systems of the early s had hardware support for smooth background scrolling—most notably the Atari 8-bit family.
Nevertheless, B. The same year, a scrolling platform game appeared on the Commodore 64 and Atari 8-bit computers called Snokie.
Based on the Saturday morning cartoon rather than the maze game, Namco's Pac-Land was a bidirectional, horizontally-scrolling, arcade platformer with walking, running, jumping, springboards, power-ups , and a series of unique levels.
Nintendo's platform game Super Mario Bros. Its success as a pack-in led many companies to see platform games as vital to their success, and contributed greatly to popularizing the genre during the 8-bit console generation.
Sega attempted to emulate this success with their Alex Kidd series, which began in on the Master System with Alex Kidd in Miracle World , a platformer that featured horizontal and vertical scrolling levels, the ability to punch enemies and obstacles, and shops where the player could buy power-ups and vehicles.
The environments are varied, including mountains, caves, oceans, forests, and underwater segments. The original Wonder Boy in was inspired more by Pac-Land than Super Mario Bros , and featured skateboarding segments that gave the game a greater sense of speed than other platformers at the time,  while its sequel, Wonder Boy in Monster Land , took the series in a new direction by combining action-adventure and action role-playing elements with traditional platforming.
Scrolling platformers went portable in the late s with games such as Super Mario Land , and the genre continued to maintain its popularity, with many titles released for the handheld Game Boy and Game Gear systems.
Because of their small size, technical constraints, and blurring associated with the LCD technology, fast-paced action-based platformers were more difficult to develop for these handheld systems.
Because of this, many early handheld platformers leaned towards slower-paced play styles and a greater emphasis on puzzles. One of the first platform games to scroll in all four directions freely and follow the on-screen character's movement is in a vector game called Major Havoc , which comprises a number of mini-games, including a simple platformer, a shoot 'em up sequence, a landing sequence, and a Breakout clone.
In , Enix released an open world platform-adventure game, Brain Breaker. Another platform-adventure released that year, Pony Canyon 's Super Pitfall , was critically panned for its vagueness and weak game design.
That same year Jaleco released Esper Boukentai , a platform-action sequel to Psychic 5 that scrolled in all directions and allowed the player character to make huge multistory jumps, which were necessary to navigate the giant, vertically oriented levels.
In , Capcom 's Mega Man introduced non-linear level progression where the player is able to choose the order in which they complete levels.
This was a stark contrast to both linear games like Super Mario Bros. GamesRadar credits the "level select" feature of Mega Man as the basis for the non-linear mission structure found in most open-world, multi-mission, sidequest -heavy games.
The advent of bit home consoles marked an evolutionary step for the genre. By the time the Genesis and Super NES launched, platform games were the most popular genre in home console gaming and were seen as vital for winning the console war.
There was a particular emphasis on having a flagship platform title exclusive to a format, featuring a mascot character.
The title was only modestly successful, and Sega realized it needed a stronger mascot to move Genesis units. That same year, Capcom released the platformer Strider , which scrolled in multiple directions and allowed the player to summon artificial intelligence AI partners, such as a droid, tiger, and hawk, to help fight enemies.
In order to fend off the new competition, Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog. Sonic featured large stages that scrolled effortlessly in all directions, as well as all manner of uneven terrain, curved hills, and a complex physics system that allowed players to rush through its levels with well-placed jumps and rolls.
Lastly, there was the game's eponymous main character. Whereas prior platforming mascots tended to be either middle-aged men or young children, Sega decided to characterize Sonic as a teenager, with a rebellious personality in order to appeal to older gamers,  and super speed to help show off the Genesis' hardware capabilities.
The game proved to be a massive hit, was a successful pack-in with new systems, and cemented the view that platform games would make or break a console.
The Sonic character was seen as a new model for mascots in the early s, particularly for his perceived attitude, which characterized him as a rebel.
This attitude soon became the status quo, as companies attempted to duplicate Sonic's success with their own brightly colored anthropomorphisms.
These mascots, which included Gex , Mr. Although there had long been important platform games on home computers, a second generation of platform games for computers appeared alongside the new wave of consoles.
In the late s and early s, the Amiga was known as a stronger gaming platform than IBM PC compatibles , thanks to its more powerful stock video hardware and sound hardware.
Games like Shadow of the Beast and Turrican showed that computer platform games could rival the graphics and sound of their console contemporaries.
Prince of Persia , originally released for the Apple II in , long after that system's heyday, featured an unprecedented level of animation.
The abundance of platformers for bit consoles continued late into the generation, with successful games such as Vectorman , Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest , and Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island , but the release of new hardware caused players' attention to shift away from traditional 2D genres.
The 2D Rayman was a big success on bit consoles. Castlevania: Symphony of the Night revitalized its series and established a new foundation for later Castlevania games.
Oddworld and Heart of Darkness kept the subgenre born from Prince of Persia alive. The difficulties of adapting platform gameplay to three dimensions led some developers to compromise by pairing the visual flash of 3D with traditional 2D side scrolling gameplay.
These games are often referred to as 2. The game featured levels and boss characters rendered in 3D, but retained 2D gameplay and used pre-rendered 2D sprites for regular characters, similar to Donkey Kong Country.
Its sequel improved upon its design, featuring some 3D effects such as hopping between the foreground and background, and the camera panning and curving around corners.
Meanwhile, Pandemonium and Klonoa brought the 2. In a break from the past, the Nintendo 64 had the fewest side scrolling platformers with only four; Yoshi's Story , Kirby The Crystal Shards , Goemon's Great Adventure , and Mischief Makers —and most met with a tepid response from critics at the time.
The term 3D platformer usually refers to games that feature gameplay in three dimensions and polygonal 3D graphics. Games that have 3D gameplay but 2D graphics are usually included under the umbrella of isometric platformers , while those that have 3D graphics but gameplay on a 2D plane are called 2.
The first attempts to bring platform games into 3D used 2D graphics and had an isometric perspective. These games are nearly as old as the genre itself, one of the earliest examples being Sega's Congo Bongo in The first platformers to simulate a 3D perspective and moving camera emerged in the early-mids.
An early example of this was Konami 's platform game Antarctic Adventure ,  where the player controls a penguin in a forward-scrolling third-person perspective while having to jump over pits and obstacles.
It was notable for being one of the first stereoscopic 3-D games. It allowed players to move in all directions, but it did not allow movement along more than one axis at once; the player could move orthogonally but not diagonally.
Its characters were pre-rendered sprites, much like the earlier Clockwork Knight. The game played very similarly to 2D platformers, but it was considered a true 3D title, and let players walk up walls and on ceilings.
It was a moderate success, and spawned a sequel called Bug Too! Entitled Fade to Black , it was the first attempt to bring a popular 2D platform game series into 3D.
While it retained the puzzle-oriented level design style and step-based control, and bore a strong resemblance to its predecessor, it did not meet the criteria of a platform game, and was billed as an action adventure.
Fade to Black set the stage for other series, such as Metroid and Duke Nukem , that gradually shifted away from the traditional platform formula while retaining many of its gameplay conventions.
There was a great deal of pressure on Sony, Sega, and Nintendo to release mascot platformers before the holiday season.
Sony chose to adopt an existing project by developers Naughty Dog , a small developer at the time, who had recently released the questionable Way of the Warrior.
The move paid off; their game, Crash Bandicoot , beat Nintendo's new console to market in North America and was released in time for the holiday in Japan.
Crash remained Sony's unofficial mascot for the next several years before switching to multi-platform releases in the following console generation.
Sega did not fare as well. Their project, titled Sonic Xtreme , was to have featured a radically different approach for the series, with an exaggerated fisheye camera and multidirectional gameplay reminiscent of Bug!
Its development was rocky, due in part to conflicts with Sega Enterprises in Japan and a rushed schedule, and the game never made it to market.
Beginning in the s platforming games began to transform from pseudo-3D to "true 3D" experiences, the distinction being constraints on the degree of control the player over the character and camera.
Rendering of 3D environment from angles controlled by the user necessitates that the graphics hardware be sufficiently powerful, and that the art and rendering model of the game can be viewed from an arbitrary angle.
The improvement in graphics technology allowed publishers to produce such games, but introduced several new issues; for example, if the virtual camera can be positioned arbitrarily, it must be constrained to prevent it from clipping through the environment.
In , a small developer called Exact released a game for the X computer called Geograph Seal. The game was a fully 3D polygonal first-person shooter hybrid with a pronounced platform jumping component.
Players piloted a frog-like mech that could jump and then double-jump or triple-jump high into the air, as the camera panned down to help players line up their landings.
In addition to shooting, jumping on enemies was a primary means of attack. The following year, Exact released their follow-up to Geograph Seal as an early title for Sony's new PlayStation console.
Jumping Flash! The frog-like mech was traded in for a more cartoony rabbit mech, called Robbit. Beyond this, the level design had an even greater focus on platform hopping, and it was released in Europe and North America as a launch title , helping it gain a much higher profile.
The title was successful enough to receive two sequels, and is remembered as the first 3D platformer on a console.
Floating Runner used D-pad controls and a behind-the-character camera perspective. Nintendo released Super Mario 64 in Before then, there was no established paradigm for bringing platform games into 3D.
Mario 64 set a new standard, and it was imitated by many subsequent 3D platformers. Its gameplay allowed players to explore open 3D environments with greater freedom than any previous attempt at a 3D platform game.
To aid this, Nintendo added an analog control stick to its Nintendo 64 controller, something which had not been included in a standard console controller since the Vectrex , and which has since become standard on other controllers.
This allowed for the finer precision needed for a free perspective. Players no longer followed a linear path to the ends of levels, either, with most levels providing objective-based goals.
There were a handful of boss levels that offered more traditional platforming.